Well, as usual, I ended up answering my own question. Here are some "clues" for new Bean+ users trying to get the Grove stuff to work.
Specifically, working with the LED Bar component, you'll need info on the following page:
You'll need to download the Grove library for your Arduino IDE from here:
On the GitHub page, click the green button and download a .zip file of the library. Then use the Arduino IDE menu Sketch->Include Library->Add .ZIP Library to add the LED bar library to your IDE.
Once that is done, you can go to the Grove_LED section under the File->Examples menu and pick one of the examples. All that remains is to properly configure the Grove_LED_Bar command in the source code to utilize the proper pins on the Bean+.
The LED Bar was configured with the Grove connector on the lower left (marked A2/A3). This corresponds to changes needed in a line in the source code that should ultimately look like:
Grove_LED_Bar bar(A2, A3, 1); // Clock pin, Data pin, Orientation
The original source has args something like 9,8,0. Use A4 and A5 if you want to use the I2C port.
I'll drop a few more notes under this thread if I get the other Grove modules working.